1.1. Optimal fertilization of crops with mineral and organic fertilizers
Ensuring optimal crop and grassland nutrition needs careful attention.
Nutrients need to be applied in amounts that are no greater than the crop requires and close to the time when they are needed for crop growth. An over-supply of nutrients from manures or inorganic fertilisers is wasteful, expensive, leads to crops being more susceptible to pests and diseases, and can cause pollution of both ground and surface waters.
Bulgaria is characterized by insufficient use of fertilizers and other organic fertilizers due to underestimation of the advantages. This introduces a new review with regard to the visit of organized fertilizers and their introduction into the appropriate fruits in the right quantities and at the right time. This increases the effect of fertilization by reducing fertilization costs, increasing production and saving agri-environmental requirements. Manure is a combined fertilizer and is used to apply both minerals (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and trace elements) and organic matter, which has similar structures of mail.
1.1.1 Soil nutrient reserves
Checking the crop’s nutrient needs, and the nutrient reserves and pH of the soil regularly, and then adjusting the nutrients applied in manures or bagged fertiliser, saves money. This practice will also avoid the build-up of excess soluble nutrients and losses by leaching and runoff.
1.1.2. Applying manures
Organic manures (farmyard manure (FYM), slurries, poultry litter and ‘off-farm’ wastes) are valuable sources of organic matter, nitrogen, phosphate, potash and important minerals. Taking account of the available nutrients in your manures can reduce supplementary mineral fertiliser use. The amount of nitrogen that is readily available in manures will depend on the type of manure, when it is being spread, soil type and method of application.
1.1.3. Composting manures
All straw-based manures, when stacked in a heap, will decompose into humus, which is a good soil conditioner. However, this process can be made more efficient by introducing air and sometimes water into the manure, which stimulates decomposition.
The benefits of composting are:
● It reduces bulk and makes for easier handling
● It provides a soil conditioner
● It can kill some weed seeds and pathogens
● A more controlled release of nutrients and plant uptake
● The safe windows for application to land are greater than fresh manures
● It reduces stock avoidance
1.1.4. Storing manures
Having sufficient storage to allow application of manures at the right time is important. It may be possible to do this by making more of existing storage with simple and cost- effective changes in practice.
It is easy to see if there is potential for improving flexibility of storage by checking whether:
● All clean water e.g. from roofs and clean yards is drained separately from ‘dirty water’
● The quantity of manure produced is minimised by careful management
● Yards, stock-gathering areas and stores can be roofed cost-effectively
1.1.5. Applying inorganic fertilisers
Careful attention to fertiliser recommendations (e.g. MAFF fertiliser recommendations for agricultural and horticultural crops – RB209) and their accurate field application is not only important for optimum crop nutrition but also to prevent water pollution.
A fertiliser spreader is a precision tool and requires calibration and regular maintenance to ensure a uniform spread pattern and an accurate application rate.