In the case of the apple, several systems are used to form the crown of the tree, namely:
- свободно растяща корона;
- вретеновидна корона (подходяща за сортове, присаждани на слаборастящи подложки);
- палмета с наклонени клони.
- free-growing crown;
- spindle-shaped crown (suitable for varieties grafted on low-growing rootstocks);
- palm trees with sloping branches.
- In the case of the free-growing crown, the aim is to form a semi-flat crown, as well as to prevent strong growth in the top of the crown and exposing the base, the formation of a free-growing crown is easy. After planting, the tree is cut to a height of 90-100 cm above the soil to form the stem. If there are premature twigs located up to 20 cm below the place of the cut, they are cut into 1-2 buds, and the lower ones are removed. In the spring after planting, 4 shoots are left per tree: one for the guide and three for the main side branches. The rest are removed by sprouting (explained in detail with the peach). A very important condition for the formation of the free-growing crown is that the lateral branches grow at a wide angle to the guide, be located relatively evenly around it and not be from adjacent buds.
No pruning is done in the years during fruiting.
After the first good fruiting, for 2-3 years, through winter pruning remove excess branches and twigs until the final lightening of the crown. The branches that interfere and shade the most are removed during the first winter pruning.
- The varieties on the rootstock Mg are best formed by the spindle system, where the height is limited to 2.0-2.5 m, and for rootstocks MM26 and MM106 the height is limited to 2.5-2.8 m. Under this system, pruning and tree formation accelerate. the onset of fruiting, and the trees themselves have a well-established central branch. at the base of which there are 3-4 permanent strong twigs, and above them – weaker fruit twigs, which are periodically replaced. The spindle crown is formed over 4 years by four winter prunings as follows:
- First pruning (after planting): The stem is shortened to a height of 80-100 cm above the soil. All twigs up to 80-80 cm above the soil are removed, and over 60 cm – are preserved.
- Second pruning: determine the length of the stem (guide). If the chosen leader is much more developed than the other branches, he is removes and chooses another straight, weaker growing twig. This suppresses the rapid growth of the top of the tree and stimulates the development of the lower branches. The driver’s competitors are also eliminated, as well as all strong twigs at the top of the crown.
- Third pruning – with the driver’s extension is done as in the second pruning. Remove strong and upward-growing twigs in upper part of the crown Does not shorten the newly elected extension of the driver. The extensions of the lateral branches are not shortened either.
- Fourth pruning: the technology is similar to the third pruning attitude of the driver. Remove strong and straight-growing twigs nearby to the successor.
As a result of pruning, a conical crown is formed, in which growth to the top decreases. When entering fruiting (3rd or 4th year after planting) the crown brightens. The principle is observed: strong twigs are left at the base of the crown, and weaker ones growing above them.
- The formation of palmettes with sloping branches is a system that applies mainly to apple and pear orchards. The crown of the palmettes is a vertical plane and its formation is quite difficult. But palmettes facilitate mechanized and manual work on growing and harvesting. The crown has a central branch (guide) and 3-4 floors with 2 symmetrically located side branches, directed in the direction of the row. The floors are not strictly fixed and do not have separate side branches. Initially, the side branches grow freely. When they reach a length of about 150 cm, they are artificially tilted at an angle of 40-45 ° to the horizontal.
The trees are grown low-stemmed. The height of the stem is 50- 60 cm. In the 1st year in the spring the sprouting is done. Leave 3-4 shoots, one of which is used as a continuation of the stem. Outside the specified 3-4 shoots, everything else is removed. In the 2nd winter pruning, a guide and 2 branches for side branches on the 1st floor are chosen again. The remaining strong branches are removed. The driver is shortens slightly above the place for the formation of the 2nd floor of lateral branches. i.e. 50-80 cm above 1 * floor.
Similarly, the 3rd, 4th and / or 5th winter prunings are made to form the 2nd, respectively. 3rd and / or 4th floor of side branches.
Tilting the side branches from the 1st floor at an angle of 40-45 ° can be done in the summer of 2 ‘* year or 3’ * winter pruning. The process requires a pre-built wire structure along the row. The side branches from the 1st floor are tilted at the set angle and attached to the wire structure. It is obligatory for them to have the longest arm (compared to the side ones on the next floors). The procedure for tilting the side branches of the 2nd, 3rd and / or 4th floors is similar to the one described above, as each subsequent floor of branches has a shorter arm. As a result, the palmette acquires a shape close to that of a candlestick
Until fruiting begins, removal is carried out each spring of the inner shoots on the lateral branches by sprouting. When done in a timely and correct manner, almost no winter pruning is required
During the period of full fruiting, the formation of the crown is done. Only pruning is done for lightening. If a weakening of the growth of the tree is observed, the old fruit branches are shortened. Pruning also limits the lateral development of overgrown branches, as well as the development of the tree in height.
Pruning for rejuvenation with very poor tree growth is expressed in a strong thinning of the overgrown wood and a strong shortening of the remaining fruiting branches.