During storage, grain stocks and products from their processing are attacked by various types of enemies – insects / bugs, grain eaters, moths /, rodents and birds. Once they settle in the warehouses, they use the stored products for food and can cause great losses.
In addition to direct losses, storage pests cause a number of indirect damages – they cause self-heating and mold in the grain, as a result of which many harmful mycotoxins accumulate.
Of the bugs, the wheat and rice bugs are economically dangerous and cosmopolitan. Harmful larvae of wheatgrass. They feed inside the nipple and gnaw on the inside. They have a preference for wheat, soft, rye and barley. Rice buckthorn has the highest density compared to other storage enemies and therefore it is the most dangerous storage pest in our country. It also prefers soft wheat varieties, but grows well in other cereals. Unlike wheatgrass, 2 larvae can develop in one grain. It is a more heat-loving species and is more sensitive to the effects of low temperatures, which can be used successfully in the fight against it.
The larvae of the rusty-red flour beetle live freely between the grain. At lower humidity they feed on the embryo, and at higher humidity it also gnaws on the endosperm. In high numbers, in addition to direct weight loss, the grain acquires an unpleasant bedbug odor.
The caterpillars of the moth on the dried fruits develop on the surface of the grain layer and entangle the top of the piles with cobwebs and excrement. They feed on the germ of the nipple, but also gnaw on the endosperm. At high densities, they crawl throughout the warehouse to search for shelter and pupae to spend the winter.
How should the fight against warehouse enemies be carried out?
-An important condition is not to mix old with new harvest;
-The grain should be cleaned of impurities and broken grains before storage and should be dry;
-In the autumn and winter the grain should be cooled to 10 – 12oС;
If the grain is attacked by storage pests, the following preparations may be used: magtoxin, fostoxin, delight gastoxin, as follows: Delicacy gastoxin / tablets / for decontamination of grain in bulk in warehouses is applied 10 tablets per ton at exposure of 3 days and grain temperature above 20oС; at a grain temperature of 15 – 20oС – 5 days; at a grain temperature of 10 – 15oС- 8 days.
Magtoxin / pellets or dragees / is applied to 30 pellets 1 ton of grain.
Fostoxin / tablets / for treatment of grain in bulk – 10 tablets per 1 ton at exposure of 3 days, if the grain temperature is above 20oС, 5 days – 15 – 20oС and 7 days at a temperature of 10 – 15oС. The grain is covered with tarpaulin or polyethylene to prevent the gas (hydrogen phosphorus) from escaping, which is released from the tablets and has a killing effect on the enemies. After the set exposure time, the pile is unwound and ventilated. This is done by specially trained professionals.
Small amounts of grain are treated by pouring them into plastic bags or barrels and then burying 1-2 tablets wrapped in paper so that they do not contaminate the grain. The bag is tied tightly for 1 week. Then remove the sachets with the remains of the preparation. The decontaminated grain can be used after 48 hours of ventilation.